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Bone and muscle are recognised as interacting tissues, the so-called 'muscle-bone unit', in which these two tissues communicate to coordinate their development (chemically and metabolically), as well as their response to loading or injury. Musculoskeletal disorders of ageing, specifically osteoporosis and sarcopenia, are highly prevalent in older individuals. They signify a significant burden for older people affecting their mobility, confidence, and quality of life, as well as being a major cost to healthcare systems worldwide. This review considers the coexistence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in individuals and describes risk factors, clinical consequences, approaches to management, and the link with functional capacity.

Original publication




Journal article


Best pract res clin rheumatol

Publication Date



Ageing, Bone, Functional capacity, Muscle