Prostaglandin E2 production and T cell function after fish-oil supplementation: response to antioxidant cosupplementation.
Trebble TM., Wootton SA., Miles EA., Mullee M., Arden NK., Ballinger AB., Stroud MA., Burdge GC., Calder PC.
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but the effect of PGE(2) on interleukin 4 (IL-4) production is unclear. Fish oil, which contains eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, inhibits production of PGE(2). The effects of fish oil on lymphocyte proliferation and production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 are unclear and may be influenced by the availability of antioxidants.We investigated the effect of dietary fish oil with and without antioxidant cosupplementation on lymphocyte proliferation and the production of PGE(2), IFN-gamma, and IL-4 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Sixteen healthy men received dietary fish-oil supplements providing 0.3, 1, and 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid/d for 4 consecutive weeks each (total of 12 wk). All subjects were randomly assigned to daily cosupplementation with either antioxidants (200 microg Se, 3 mg Mn, 30 mg RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate, 90 mg ascorbic acid, 450 micro g vitamin A) or placebo.Fish-oil supplementation decreased PGE(2) production and increased IFN-gamma production and lymphocyte proliferation from baseline values. Cosupplementation with antioxidants did not affect cytokine production or lymphocyte proliferation.Dietary fish oil modulates production of IFN-gamma and lymphocyte proliferation in a manner consistent with decreased production of PGE(2), but this effect is not modified by antioxidant cosupplementation.