Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

PURPOSE: Ankle fractures may cause disability and socioeconomic challenges, even when managed in a high-resource setting. The outcomes of ankle fractures in sub-Saharan Africa are not widely reported. We present a systematic review of the patient-reported outcomes and complications of patients treated for ankle fractures in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, utilising MeSH headings and Boolean search strategies. Ten papers were included. Data included patient demographics, surgical and non-surgical management, patient-reported outcome measures and evidence of complications. RESULTS: A total of 555 patients with ankle fractures were included, 471 of whom were followed up (range 6 weeks-73 months). A heterogenous mix of low-quality observational studies and two methodologically poor-quality randomised trials demonstrated mixed outcomes. A preference for surgical management was found within the published studies with 87% of closed fractures being treated operatively. A total of five different outcome scoring systems were used. Most studies included in this review were published by well-resourced organisations and as such are not representative of the actual clinical practice taking place. CONCLUSION: The literature surrounding the clinical outcomes of ankle fractures in sub-Saharan Africa is sparse. There appears to be a preference for surgical fixation in the published literature and considering the limitations in surgical resources across sub-Saharan Africa this may not be representative of real-life care in the region.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur j orthop surg traumatol

Publication Date



Africa, Ankle, Fracture, Outcome, PROM