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PURPOSE: Members of the European Knee Society (EKS) recently took part in an online questionnaire on robot-assisted TKA. The purpose of this study was to report and analyse the questionnaire results on the demographics of users versus non-users, the drivers for users of the technology, and the barriers or limitations that hinder the uptake of robot-assisted TKA. METHODS: The questionnaire was composed of 16 questions covering surgeon demographics and drivers for or barriers to the use of robotics. Responses on four- or five-point Likert scales were trichotomised depending on the type of question ("not important" - "moderately important" - "important/very important" or "fully disagree/disagree" - "neutral" - "agree/fully agree"). Consensus on a statement was defined as at least 75% agreement. RESULTS: There was a 67% response rate. Forty-five surgeons performed conventional TKA, of which 78% aimed for systematic alignment, while 22 performed robot-assisted TKA, of which 82% aimed for individualised alignment, and 16 performed technology-assisted TKA, of which 56% aimed for systematic alignment. Respondents agreed that robotics significantly impact accuracy of bone cuts (51/62, 82%), intra-operative feedback on ligament balancing (56/62, 90%) as well as bone cut orientation and implant positioning (57/ 62, 92%), and assistance to customise alignment (56/62, 90%). Respondents agreed that associated costs (14/18, 78%) are an important aspect for not using or to stop using robotics. CONCLUSION: The majority of respondents still perform conventional TKA (54%), while only a small portion perform robot-assisted TKA (27%) or other technology-assisted TKA (19%). Most robot users aim for individualised lower limb alignment, whereas most other surgeons aimed for systematic lower limb alignment. There is consensus that robotic assistance has a positive impact on accuracy of bone cuts and alignment, but no consensus on its impact on other peri- or post-operative outcomes. Finally, the associated cost of robot-assisted TKA remains the main barrier to its uptake. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V.

Original publication




Journal article


Int orthop

Publication Date



EKS, Robotic surgery, Survey, Total knee arthroplasty