Contrast-agent free cell sonoporation using a continuous-flow microfluidic device
Carugo D., Ankrett DN., Glynne-Jones P., Capretto L., Boltryik RJ., Townsend PA., Zhang X., Hill M.
Ultrasound (US) has been utilised to induce reversible poration of cell membranes (sonoporation) in order to facilitate the trans-membrane delivery of pharmaceutical agents. Sonoporation is conventionally performed in the presence of microbubble contrast agents (CA). However, challenges remain in achieving controlled sonoporation due to CA cavitational effects, which can significantly reduce cell viability. Therefore CA-free sonoporation represents a "gentle" methodology for facilitating the delivery of pharmaceutical agents while maintaining high cell viability. We report facilitated uptake of doxorubicin and apigenin by CA-free sonoporation of suspended cardiomyocytes by generating an ultrasonic standing wave within an easy-to-use continuous-flow microfluidic device. Copyright © (2011) by the Chemical and Biological Microsystems Society.