Air pollution, alcohol consumption, and the risk of elevated liver enzyme levels: a cross-sectional study in the UK Biobank.
Liu R., Li D., Xie J., Wang L., Hu Y., Tian Y.
Evidences on the association between exposure to air pollution and liver enzymes was scarce in low pollution area. We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and liver enzyme levels and further explore whether alcohol intake influence this association. This cross-sectional study included 425,773 participants aged 37 to 73 years from the UK Biobank. Land Use Regression was applied to assess levels of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and NOx. Levels of liver enzymes including AST, ALT, GGT, and ALP were determined by enzymatic rate method. Long-term low-level exposure to PM2.5 (per 5-μg/m3 increase) was significantly associated with AST (0.596% increase, 95% CI, 0.414 to 0.778%), ALT (0.311% increase, 0.031 to 0.593%), and GGT (1.552% increase, 1.172 to 1.933%); The results were similar for PM10; NOX and NO2 were only significantly correlated with AST and GGT Significant modification effects by alcohol consumption were found (P-interaction