Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Coronary 18F-sodium-fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) showed promise in imaging coronary artery disease activity. Currently image processing remains subjective due to the need for manual registration of PET and computed tomography (CT) angiography data. We aimed to develop a novel fully automated method to register coronary 18F-NaF PET to CT angiography using pseudo-CT generated by generative adversarial networks (GAN). METHODS: A total of 169 patients, 139 in the training and 30 in the testing sets were considered for generation of pseudo-CT from non-attenuation corrected (NAC) PET using GAN. Non-rigid registration was used to register pseudo-CT to CT angiography and the resulting transformation was used to align PET with CT angiography. We compared translations, maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) and target to background ratio (TBRmax) at the location of plaques, obtained after observer and automated alignment. RESULTS: Automatic end-to-end registration was performed for 30 patients with 88 coronary vessels and took 27.5 seconds per patient. Difference in displacement motion vectors between GAN-based and observer-based registration in the x-, y-, and z-directions was 0.8 ± 3.0, 0.7 ± 3.0, and 1.7 ± 3.9 mm, respectively. TBRmax had a coefficient of repeatability (CR) of 0.31, mean bias of 0.03 and narrow limits of agreement (LOA) (95% LOA: - 0.29 to 0.33). SUVmax had CR of 0.26, mean bias of 0 and narrow LOA (95% LOA: - 0.26 to 0.26). CONCLUSION: Pseudo-CT generated by GAN are perfectly registered to PET can be used to facilitate quick and fully automated registration of PET and CT angiography.

Original publication




Journal article


J nucl cardiol

Publication Date





604 - 615


CT, PET, image analysis, image reconstruction, multimodality, Humans, Computed Tomography Angiography, Fluorine Radioisotopes, Positron-Emission Tomography, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Angiography, Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography, Sodium Fluoride