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PURPOSE: To improve the test-retest reproducibility of coronary plaque 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) uptake measurements. METHODS: We recruited 20 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent repeated hybrid PET/CT angiography (CTA) imaging within 3 weeks. All patients had 30-min PET acquisition and CTA during a single imaging session. Five PET image-sets with progressive motion correction were reconstructed: (i) a static dataset (no-MC), (ii) end-diastolic PET (standard), (iii) cardiac motion corrected (MC), (iv) combined cardiac and gross patient motion corrected (2 × MC) and, (v) cardiorespiratory and gross patient motion corrected (3 × MC). In addition to motion correction, all datasets were corrected for variations in the background activities which are introduced by variations in the injection-to-scan delays (background blood pool clearance correction, BC). Test-retest reproducibility of PET target-to-background ratio (TBR) was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of reproducibility. RESULTS: A total of 47 unique coronary lesions were identified on CTA. Motion correction in combination with BC improved the PET TBR test-retest reproducibility for all lesions (coefficient of reproducibility: standard = 0.437, no-MC = 0.345 (27% improvement), standard + BC = 0.365 (20% improvement), no-MC + BC = 0.341 (27% improvement), MC + BC = 0.288 (52% improvement), 2 × MC + BC = 0.278 (57% improvement) and 3 × C + BC = 0.254 (72% improvement), all p  10 mm following corrections, reproducibility was improved by 133% (coefficient of reproducibility: standard = 0.745, 3 × MC = 0.320). CONCLUSION: Joint corrections for cardiac, respiratory, and gross patient motion in combination with background blood pool corrections markedly improve test-retest reproducibility of coronary 18F-NaF PET.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur j nucl med mol imaging

Publication Date





2610 - 2620


18F-sodium fluoride, Cardiac PET, Data-driven motion detection, Motion correction, PET/CT, Vulnerable plaque, Aged, Angiography, Coronary Artery Disease, Female, Fluorine Radioisotopes, Gated Blood-Pool Imaging, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Male, Movement, Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography, Reproducibility of Results, Sodium Fluoride