Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a major carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), is associated with an increased incidence of aortic stenosis (AS). However, it remains unclear whether elevated Lp(a) and OxPL drive disease progression and are therefore targets for therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether Lp(a) and OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) levels are associated with disease activity, disease progression, and clinical events in AS patients, along with the mechanisms underlying any associations. METHODS: This study combined 2 prospective cohorts and measured Lp(a) and OxPL-apoB levels in patients with AS (Vmax >2.0 m/s), who underwent baseline 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET), repeat computed tomography calcium scoring, and repeat echocardiography. In vitro studies investigated the effects of Lp(a) and OxPL on valvular interstitial cells. RESULTS: Overall, 145 patients were studied (68% men; age 70.3 ± 9.9 years). On baseline positron emission tomography, patients in the top Lp(a) tertile had increased valve calcification activity compared with those in lower tertiles (n = 79; 18F-NaF tissue-to-background ratio of the most diseased segment: 2.16 vs. 1.97; p = 0.043). During follow-up, patients in the top Lp(a) tertile had increased progression of valvular computed tomography calcium score (n = 51; 309 AU/year [interquartile range: 142 to 483 AU/year] vs. 93 AU/year [interquartile range: 56 to 296 AU/year; p = 0.015), faster hemodynamic progression on echocardiography (n = 129; 0.23 ± 0.20 m/s/year vs. 0.14 ± 0.20 m/s/year] p = 0.019), and increased risk for aortic valve replacement and death (n = 145; hazard ratio: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.08; p = 0.014), compared with lower tertiles. Similar results were noted with OxPL-apoB. In vitro, Lp(a) induced osteogenic differentiation of valvular interstitial cells, mediated by OxPL and inhibited with the E06 monoclonal antibody against OxPL. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AS, Lp(a) and OxPL drive valve calcification and disease progression. These findings suggest lowering Lp(a) or inactivating OxPL may slow AS progression and provide a rationale for clinical trials to test this hypothesis.

Original publication




Journal article


J am coll cardiol

Publication Date





2150 - 2162


aortic valve stenosis, calcific aortic valve disease, lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, valvular interstitial cells, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aortic Valve, Aortic Valve Stenosis, Apolipoprotein B-100, Biomarkers, Calcinosis, Cohort Studies, Disease Progression, Echocardiography, Doppler, Female, Humans, Hyperlipidemias, Lipoprotein(a), Male, Middle Aged, Phospholipids, Positron-Emission Tomography, Prognosis, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk Assessment, Sex Factors, Survival Analysis, Tomography, X-Ray Computed