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Background In the Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart (SCOT-HEART) trial in individuals with stable chest pain, a treatment strategy based on coronary CT angiography (CTA) led to improved outcomes. Purpose To assess 5-year cumulative radiation doses of participants undergoing investigation for suspected angina due to coronary artery disease with or without coronary CTA. Materials and Methods This secondary analysis of the SCOT-HEART trial included data from six of 12 recruiting sites and two of three imaging sites. Participants were recruited between November 18, 2010, and September 24, 2014, with follow-up through January 31, 2018. Study participants had been randomized (at a one-to-one ratio) to standard care with CT (n = 1466) or standard care alone (n = 1428). Imaging was performed on a 64-detector (n = 223) or 320-detector row scanner (n = 1466). Radiation dose from CT (dose-length product), SPECT (injected activity), and invasive coronary angiography (ICA; kerma-area product) was assessed for 5 years after enrollment. Effective dose was calculated using conversion factors appropriate for the imaging modality and body region imaged (using 0.026 mSv/mGy · cm for cardiac CT). Results Cumulative radiation dose was assessed in 2894 participants. Median effective dose was 3.0 mSv (IQR, 2.6-3.3 mSv) for coronary calcium scoring, 4.1 mSv (IQR, 2.6-6.1 mSv) for coronary CTA, 7.4 mSv (IQR, 6.2-8.5 mSv) for SPECT, and 4.1 mSv (IQR, 2.5-6.8 mSv) for ICA. After 5 years, total per-participant cumulative dose was higher in the CT group (median, 8.1 mSv; IQR, 5.5-12.4 mSv) compared with standard-care group (median, 0 mSv; IQR, 0-4.5 mSv; P < .001). In participants who underwent any imaging, cumulative radiation exposure was higher in the CT group (n = 1345; median, 8.6 mSv; IQR, 6.1-13.3 mSv) compared with standard-care group (n = 549; median, 6.4 mSv; IQR, 3.4-9.2 mSv; P < .001). Conclusion In the SCOT-HEART trial, the 5-year cumulative radiation dose from cardiac imaging was higher in the coronary CT angiography group compared with the standard-care group, largely because of the radiation exposure from CT. Clinical trial registration no. NCT01149590 © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Dodd and Bosserdt in this issue.

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Humans, Chest Pain, Computed Tomography Angiography, Coronary Angiography, Coronary Artery Disease, Radiation Dosage, Radiation Exposure, Tomography, X-Ray Computed