Prognosis, Biology, and Targeting of TP53 Dysregulation in Multiple Myeloma.
Flynt E., Bisht K., Sridharan V., Ortiz M., Towfic F., Thakurta A.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological cancer and is characterized by genetic features including translocations, chromosomal copy number aberrations, and mutations in key oncogene and tumor suppressor genes. Dysregulation of the tumor suppressor TP53 is important in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including MM. In newly-diagnosed MM patients, TP53 dysregulation occurs in three subsets: monoallelic deletion as part of deletion of chromosome 17p (del17p) (~8%), monoallelic mutations (~6%), and biallelic inactivation (~4%). Del17p is an established high-risk feature in MM and is included in current disease staging criteria. Biallelic inactivation and mutation have also been reported in MM patients but are not yet included in disease staging criteria for high-risk disease. Emerging clinical and genomics data suggest that the biology of high-risk disease is complex, and so far, traditional drug development efforts to target dysregulated TP53 have not been successful. Here we review the TP53 dysregulation literature in cancer and in MM, including the three segments of TP53 dysregulation observed in MM patients. We propose a reverse translational approach to identify novel targets and disease drivers from TP53 dysregulated patients to address the unmet medical need in this setting.