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Over the past decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a major modality in cancer medicine. However, despite its unprecedented success, immunotherapy currently benefits only a subgroup of patients, may induce responses of limited duration and is associated with potentially treatment-limiting side effects. In addition, responses to immunotherapeutics are sometimes diminished by the emergence of a complex array of resistance mechanisms. The efficacy of immunotherapy depends on dynamic interactions between tumour cells and the immune landscape in the tumour microenvironment. Ultrasound, especially in conjunction with cavitation-promoting agents such as microbubbles, can assist in the uptake and/or local release of immunotherapeutic agents at specific target sites, thereby increasing treatment efficacy and reducing systemic toxicity. There is also increasing evidence that ultrasound and/or cavitation may themselves directly stimulate a beneficial immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest developments in the use of ultrasound and cavitation agents to promote checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Ultrasound med biol

Publication Date