VEGF, FLT3 ligand, PlGF and HGF can substitute for M-CSF to induce human osteoclast formation: implications for giant cell tumour pathobiology.
Taylor RM., Kashima TG., Knowles HJ., Athanasou NA.
Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a primary bone tumour that contains numerous very large, hyper-nucleated osteoclastic giant cells. Osteoclasts form from CD14+ monocytes and macrophages in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). GCTB contains numerous growth factors, some of which have been reported to influence osteoclastogenesis and resorption. We investigated whether these growth factors are capable of substituting for M-CSF to support osteoclast formation from cultured human monocytes and whether they influence osteoclast cytomorphology and resorption. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-D, FLT3 ligand (FL), placental growth factor (PlGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) supported RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the absence of M-CSF, resulting in the formation of numerous TRAP+ multinucleated cells capable of lacunar resorption. Monocytes cultured in the presence of M-CSF, HGF, VEGF-A and RANKL together resulted in the formation of very large, hyper-nucleated (GCTB-like) osteoclasts that were hyper-resorptive. M-CSF and M-CSF substitute growth factors were identified immunohistochemically in GCTB tissue sections and these factors stimulated the resorption of osteoclasts derived from a subset of GCTBs. Our findings indicate that there are growth factors that are capable of substituting for M-CSF to induce human osteoclast formation and that these factors are present in GCTB where they influence osteoclast cytomorphology and have a role in osteoclast formation and resorption activity.