Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Photoacoustic imaging offers significant potential as a biomedical imaging modality. For some applications, however, there is a need for contrast enhancement. In this paper, a theoretical comparison is presented of the efficacy of three different designs for photoacoustic contrast agents (PACAs), specifically, a droplet of dye, a bubble filled with gas coated by a dye loaded shell, and a droplet of volatile dye. For each case, the governing equations describing the dynamics of a single PACA in a homogenous incompressible fluid are derived. The coupled sets of equations describing the bubble oscillation and resulting radiated pressure, the photo-acoustic energy equation, and the equation of state are then solved numerically. The numerical results predict a stronger radiated acoustic signal for the same optical source energy density in the case of the volatile dye droplet by a factor of up to two orders of magnitude compared with the other two types of agent.

Original publication




Journal article


J acoust soc am

Publication Date





3853 - 3862


Coloring Agents, Contrast Media, Diagnostic Imaging, Humans, Hydrodynamics, Image Enhancement, Microbubbles, Models, Theoretical, Neoplasms, Photoacoustic Techniques