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The authors sought to review the efficacy of interventions for fatigue in Parkinson's disease. A search was conducted of PubMed, Cinahl, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge up to November 2013. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. For meta-analyses, studies were weighted on variance. Effect sizes were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI); overall effect was presented by means of a Z-score; heterogeneity was investigated using the I(2) . Fourteen articles (n = 1,890) investigating drugs and behavioral therapy were eligible. Ten studies demonstrated excellent, three good, and one fair methodological quality. Three articles (investigating amphetamines) were appropriate for meta-analysis, which was performed according to scales used: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory: mean difference, -6.13 (95%CI: -14.63-2.37, Z = 1.41, P = 0.16; I(2) = 0); Fatigue Severity Scale: mean difference, -4.00 (95%CI: -8.72-0.72, Z = 1.66, P = 0.10; I(2) = 0). Currently insufficient evidence exists to support the treatment of fatigue in PD with any drug or nondrug treatment. Further study is required.

Original publication




Journal article


Mov disord

Publication Date





1675 - 1678


Parkinson's disease, amphetamines, dopamine, fatigue, meta-analysis, Fatigue, Humans, Parkinson Disease