Distinct transcriptional programs activated by interleukin-10 with or without lipopolysaccharide in dendritic cells: induction of the B cell-activating chemokine, CXC chemokine ligand 13.
Perrier P., Martinez FO., Locati M., Bianchi G., Nebuloni M., Vago G., Bazzoni F., Sozzani S., Allavena P., Mantovani A.
To understand the modulation of dendritic cell (DC) function by IL-10, gene expression profiling was performed by using Affymetrix technology (Santa Clara, CA) in human monocyte-derived DC treated with IL-10, alone or in combination with LPS. The modulation of selected genes was validated by real-time PCR, Northern blot, and protein production. IL-10 regulated in DC the expression of a limited number of genes, including IL-7, the receptors for transferrin and vitamin D(3), structural matrix proteins, and signal transduction elements. The combined treatment with LPS plus IL-10 modulated a number of genes comparable to LPS alone, but the expression profiles were distinct. As expected, IL-10 suppressed the expression of several LPS-inducible proinflammatory molecules. Among genes uniquely modulated by the concomitant treatment with LPS plus IL-10, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma was down-regulated while the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule, regulator of G protein signaling 16, and the chemokine, CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 13, were up-regulated. Overall, four distinct transcriptional programs were identified, related to: 1) control of immunity and inflammation; 2) tuning of cytokine receptor and G protein-coupled receptor signaling; 3) remodeling of extracellular matrix; and 4) B cell function and lymphoid tissue neogenesis. Among the latter genes, we further demonstrate that IL-10 synergizes with TLR ligands for the production of functionally active B cell-attracting chemokine, CXCL13, in both myeloid and plasmacytoid DC. This novel finding reveals that IL-10 sustains humoral immunity by inducing the production in APCs of the chemokine, CXCL13, which amplifies B cell recruitment and promotes lymphoid tissue neogenesis.