The grading of hallux valgus. The Manchester Scale.
Garrow AP., Papageorgiou A., Silman AJ., Thomas E., Jayson MI., Macfarlane GJ.
This article describes a new, noninvasive method of assessing the severity of hallux valgus deformity by means of a set of standardized photographs. Six podiatrists were independently asked to grade the level of deformity of 13 subjects (26 feet) on a scale of 1 (no deformity) to 4 (severe deformity). The reliability of the four-point scale for the severity of hallux valgus was investigated by means of kappa-type statistics for more than two raters. The results showed that the grading method had excellent interobserver repeatability with a combined kappa-type statistic of 0.86, making it a suitable instrument for clinical and research purposes.