Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

This article describes a new, noninvasive method of assessing the severity of hallux valgus deformity by means of a set of standardized photographs. Six podiatrists were independently asked to grade the level of deformity of 13 subjects (26 feet) on a scale of 1 (no deformity) to 4 (severe deformity). The reliability of the four-point scale for the severity of hallux valgus was investigated by means of kappa-type statistics for more than two raters. The results showed that the grading method had excellent interobserver repeatability with a combined kappa-type statistic of 0.86, making it a suitable instrument for clinical and research purposes.


Journal article


J am podiatr med assoc

Publication Date





74 - 78


Foot, Hallux Valgus, Humans, Observer Variation, Photography, Podiatry, Random Allocation, Reproducibility of Results, Severity of Illness Index