Can neonatal pelvic osteotomies permanently change pelvic shape in patients with exstrophy? Understanding late rediastasis.
Kenawey M., Wright JG., Hopyan S., Murnaghan ML., Howard A., Kelley SP.
BACKGROUND: Pelvic osteotomies are frequently used as part of the surgical management of bladder exstrophy. The outcomes are often measured on the basis of the residual symphyseal diastasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate and validate a more reliable radiographic measure of ischiopubic rotation, to utilize this measure in analyzing pelves from patients with exstrophy and controls, and to propose a model for rediastasis in a pelvis with exstrophy. METHODS: Pelvic radiographs of 164 normal children two months to eighteen years of age were used to determine the changes in interpubic and interischial distances and in the interischial/interpubic (IS/IP) ratio with age. Twenty-one pelvic CT (computed tomography) studies of normal children, two to sixteen years of age, were also used to study the change in the ischiopubic divergence angle. The same parameters were measured on radiographs or CT or magnetic resonance imaging studies of seventy-three patients with classic bladder exstrophy who were followed for two to nineteen years after exstrophy closure with or without pelvic osteotomies. RESULTS: In normal children, the interpubic distance and the ischiopubic divergence angle had a narrow range and were constant with age, whereas the interischial distance and the IS/IP ratio increased progressively and were strongly correlated with age. In the patients with exstrophy, the interpubic distance was positively correlated with the interischial distance, whereas the IS/IP ratio was lower than that in normal controls and was not correlated with age. CONCLUSIONS: The IS/IP ratio is a useful measure of ischiopubic rotation and can be used to characterize pelvic growth, including the phenomenon of rediastasis in patients with exstrophy. Pelvic rediastasis is a progressive increase in interpubic distance resulting from growth without loss of rotational correction, as shown by the constancy of the IS/IP ratio with age in these patients. A better rotational position at the time of osteotomy may lead to a better pelvic shape at maturity. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Symphyseal rediastasis following neonatal pelvic osteotomies in patients with exstrophy is not due to loss of correction and progressive derotation of the hemipelves but is a consequence of the normal three-dimensional growth of the pelvis. The best correction of the pelvic deformity should always be the aim even in neonatal pelvic osteotomies because this will permanently change the pelvic shape.