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BACKGROUND: Anterior open reduction is commonly used to treat hip subluxation or dislocation in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in walking-age children. Pelvic and/or femoral osteotomy may be used in addition, but it is unclear how this affects avascular necrosis (AVN) risk and radiological and clinical results. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to review studies of walking-age patients treated either with an open reduction alone or combined with pelvic and/or femoral osteotomies and determine whether there is a difference between groups in the proportion of patients: (1) developing clinically relevant femoral head AVN (Kalamchi & MacEwen Types II to IV or equivalent); (2) achieving a satisfactory radiological result (Severin Grade I/II or equivalent); (3) achieving a satisfactory clinical result (McKay excellent or good rating or equivalent); and (4) requiring further nonsalvage surgery. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Centre Register of Controlled Trials, and were searched for studies of anterior open reduction for DDH in children aged 12 months to 6 years old. We assessed AVN, clinical and radiological results, and requirement for further procedures. The effect of failed conservative management, traction, age at operation, and followup duration was also assessed. Eighteen studies met the review eligibility criteria. RESULTS: Open reduction alone had a lower risk of AVN than open reduction combined with pelvic and femoral osteotomy (4% versus 24%), but there was no significant difference compared with open reduction with either pelvic (17%) or femoral osteotomy (18%). More hips treated with open reduction alone had satisfactory radiological results than open reduction combined with pelvic and femoral osteotomy (97% versus 83%) and satisfactory clinical results than all other interventions. More hips treated with open reduction alone required further surgical management (56%) compared with open reduction and pelvic osteotomy (11%) and combined pelvic and femoral osteotomies (8%). CONCLUSIONS: Open reduction with concomitant pelvic osteotomy is the most appropriate option to provide durable results with the lowest risk of AVN and best radiological and clinical results. There is no evidence that addition of a femoral osteotomy provides any additional benefit to the patient, although it may be necessary to achieve reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin orthop relat res

Publication Date





1199 - 1208


Age Factors, Biomechanical Phenomena, Child, Child Development, Child, Preschool, Female, Femur, Femur Head Necrosis, Hip Dislocation, Congenital, Hip Joint, Humans, Infant, Male, Odds Ratio, Orthopedic Procedures, Osteotomy, Radiography, Reoperation, Risk Factors, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome, Walking