Femoral muscle attachment locations in children and adults, and their prediction from clinical measurement.
Jenkins SE., Harrington ME., Zavatsky AB., O'Connor JJ., Theologis TN.
Accurate representation of children's musculo-skeletal anatomy is becoming increasingly important to biomechanical techniques such as gait analysis. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to examine the locations of the femoral insertions of the psoas, vastus medialis and gastrocnemius muscles in five adults and 17 children (including 7 children with cerebral palsy). The relationship of muscle attachment locations with age and bone geometry was then determined. Scaling techniques and external measurements of parameters such as femoral anteversion/antetorsion were shown to have potential for prediction of the locations of femoral muscle attachment points. It was shown that femoral anteversion can be modelled geometrically as occurring proximal to the lesser trochanter.