Outcome Following Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention in Hip Periprosthetic Joint Infection-An 18-Year Experience.
Grammatopoulos G., Kendrick B., McNally M., Athanasou NA., Atkins B., McLardy-Smith P., Taylor A., Gundle R.
BACKGROUND: Debridement-antibiotics-and-implant-retention (DAIR) may be considered a suitable surgical option in periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) with soundly fixed prostheses, despite chronicity. This study aims to define the long-term outcome following DAIR in hip PJI. METHODS: We reviewed all hip DAIRs performed between 1997 and 2013 (n = 122) to define long-term outcome and identify factors influencing it. Data recorded included patient demographics, medical history, type of DAIR performed (+/- exchange of modular components), and organisms identified. Outcome measures included complications and/or mortality rate, implant survivorship, and functional outcome (Oxford Hip Score). RESULTS: Most DAIRs (67%) were of primary arthroplasties and 60% were performed within 6 weeks from the index arthroplasty. Infection eradication was achieved in 68% of the first DAIR procedure. In 32 cases, more than one DAIR was required. Infection eradication was achieved in 85% of the cases (104/122) with the (single or multiple) DAIR approach. The most common complication was PJI-persistence (15%), followed by dislocation (14%). Very good functional outcomes were obtained, especially in primary arthroplasties. All streptococcus infections were resolved with DAIR and had better outcome. Twenty-one hips have been revised (17%) to-date, 16 were for persistence of PJI. The 10-y implant survivorship was 77%. Early PJI and exchanging modular components at DAIR were independent factors for a 4-fold increased infection eradication and improved long-term implant survival. CONCLUSION: DAIR is, therefore, a valuable option in the treatment of hip PJI, especially in the early postoperative period (≤6 weeks), with good outcomes. However, DAIR is associated with increased morbidity; further surgery may be necessary and instability may occur. Where possible, exchange of modular implants should be undertaken.