Prenatal influences on bone health in children.
Woolford SJ., Cooper C., Harvey N., Moon RJ.
INTRODUCTION: Optimising bone health might reduce the burden of both fractures in childhood and fragility fractures in later life. A number of maternal dietary and non-dietary factors have been identified that might influence offspring bone health and represent targets for intervention. Areas covered: This article will outline the accrual of bone mineral throughout the life course and how observational and intervention studies have shown that maternal diet, in particular maternal calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status, and lifestyle are associated with offspring bone mineralization. Studies examining the effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on offspring bone mineral density (BMD) will also be discussed. Expert commentary: There is a wealth of observational evidence relating maternal diet to offspring BMD. However, high quality randomized controlled trials, such as the ongoing MAVIDOS study, are needed before these findings can be definitively translated into public health advice.