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Osteoporosis is associated with increased fragility of bone and a subsequent increased risk of fracture. The diagnosis of osteoporosis is intimately linked with the imaging and quantification of bone and BMD. Scanning modalities, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or quantitative CT, have been developed and honed over the past half century to provide measures of BMD and bone microarchitecture for the purposes of clinical practice and research. Combined with fracture prediction tools such as Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) (which use a combination of clinical risk factors for fracture to provide a measure of risk), these elements have led to a paradigm shift in the ability to diagnose osteoporosis and predict individuals who are at risk of fragility fracture. Despite these developments, a treatment gap exists between individuals who are at risk of osteoporotic fracture and those who are receiving therapy. In this Review, we summarize the epidemiology of osteoporosis, the history of scanning modalities, fracture prediction tools and future directions, including the most recent developments in prediction of fractures.

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Journal article


Nat rev endocrinol

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