Risk Factors for Intraoperative Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures During Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty. An Analysis From the National Joint Registry for England and Wales and the Isle of Man.
Lamb JN., Matharu GS., Redmond A., Judge A., West RM., Pandit HG.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to estimate risk factors for intraoperative periprosthetic femoral fractures (IOPFF) and each anatomic subtype (calcar crack, trochanteric fracture, femoral shaft fracture) during primary total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 793,823 primary total hip arthroplasties between 2004 and 2016. Multivariable regression modeling was used to estimate relative risk of patient, surgical, and implant factors for any IOPFF and for all anatomic subtypes of IOPFF. Clinically important interactions were assessed using multivariable regression. RESULTS: Patient factors significantly increasing the risk of fracture were female gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 3 to 5, and preoperative diagnosis including avascular necrosis of the hip, previous trauma, inflammatory disease, pediatric disease, and previous infection. Overall risk of IOPFF associated with age was greatest in patients below 50 years and above 80 years. Risk of any fracture reduced with computer-guided surgery and in non-National Health Service hospitals. Nonposterior approaches increased the risk of shaft and trochanteric fracture only. Cementless implants significantly increased the risk of only calcar cracks and shaft fractures and not trochanteric fractures. CONCLUSION: Fracture risk increases in patients younger than 50 and older than 80 years, females, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 3 to 5, and indications other than primary osteoarthritis. Large cumulative reduction in IOPFF risk may occur with use of cemented implants, posterior approach, and computer-guided surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3b (cohort study).