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Background: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire is a commonly used patient-reported outcome measure of symptoms and function in people with upper limb conditions. The objectives of this study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the DASH questionnaire for Tamil population in India and pilot test the questionnaire for feasibility and acceptability. Materials and Methods: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation process recommended by the developers of the DASH questionnaire was followed. The prefinal Tamil DASH was tested in people with a wide range of upper limb conditions. Acceptability and feasibility was evaluated by patient feedback and the time taken to complete the questionnaire. Results: Around 11 items were adapted to improve the relevance of the questionnaire for Tamil population. Thirty patients were recruited for pilot testing. The prefinal Tamil DASH was found to be relevant and comprehensible to patients (n = 29, Males/Females: 21/8; mean (SD) age: 34 (11.3) years) and feasible to administer. One item "Sexual activities" had more non-respondents (n = 16, 55%). Upon consultation with the developers, an item "Wash and blow dry hair" was further modified and the final Tamil DASH was produced. Conclusion: Evaluation of reliability, validity and responsiveness in a large sample would inform the use of Tamil DASH in clinical and research settings.

Original publication




Journal article


Indian j orthop

Publication Date





602 - 606


Upper extremity, cross-cultural adaptation, disability, pain, patient reported outcomes