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<jats:p>Objectives This systematic review aims to assess the quality of literature supporting surgical interventions for paediatric extravasation injury and to determine and summarize their outcomes. Methods We performed a systematic review by searching Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and from inception to February 2019. All studies other than case reports were eligible for inclusion if the population was younger than 18 years old, there was a surgical intervention aimed at treating extravasation injury and they reported on outcomes. Risk of bias was graded according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) study quality assessment tools. Results 26 studies involving 728 children were included. One before and after study and 25 case series. Extravasation injuries were mainly confined to skin and subcutaneous tissues but severe complications were also encountered, including amputation (one toe and one below elbow). Of the surgical treatments described, the technique of multiple puncture wounds and instillation of saline and/or hyaluronidase was the most commonly used. However, there were no studies in which its effectiveness was tested against another treatment or a control and details of functional and aesthetic outcomes were generally lacking. Conclusion There is a lack of high quality evidence to support treatment of extravasation injury in children. A definitive trial of extravasation injuries, or a centralized extravasation register using a universal grading scheme and core outcome set with adequate follow up, are required to provide evidence to guide clinician decision-making.</jats:p>

Original publication




Journal article


Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Publication Date