Effects of transforming growth factor beta on the production of prostaglandin E and caseinase activity of unstimulated and interleukin 1-stimulated human articular chondrocytes in culture.
Fawthrop FW., Frazer A., Russell RG., Bunning RA.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) has previously been shown to have actions on chondrocytes and cartilage both in vitro and in vivo which suggest a role in connective tissue repair. In particular, some of its actions have been shown to be antagonistic to those of interleukin 1 (IL-1). In this study, the effects of TGF beta on prostaglandin E (PGE) production and caseinase activity, in the presence and absence of IL-1, in human articular chondrocytes were investigated. TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 were shown to modulate IL-1 beta-stimulated PGE production and caseinase activity. Both TGF beta 1 and beta 2 inhibited IL-1 beta-stimulated PGE production in the absence of serum and augmented it in the presence of serum. TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 inhibited IL-1-stimulated caseinase activity with and without serum. In general, the TGF beta s had little or no effect on basal PGE or caseinase levels. TGF beta s may be important modulators of chondrocyte metabolism, their effects on PGE production may depend on cytokine interactions; furthermore, their effects on caseinase activity may help prevent cartilage breakdown.