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INTRODUCTION: Arterial graft physiology influences the long-term outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We studied factors that can affect the overall resistance to flow using internal mammary artery grafting to the left anterior descending artery. METHODS: This was a prospective, nonrandomized observational study of 100 consecutive patients who underwent elective on-pump isolated or combined valve surgery and CABG. Coronary stenoses were assessed using conventional and quantitative coronary angiography assessment. The flow and pulsatility index (PI) of the grafts were assessed by transit-time flowmetry during cardioplegic arrest and at the end of the operation. Fractional polynomials were used to explore linearity, followed by multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated higher flows at the end of the operation in patients who had higher flows with the cross-clamp on (P < .001), in males (P = .004), in patients with a low PI at the end of the operation (P = .04), and in patients with a larger size of the recipient artery (P = .005). Multivariable regression analysis showed that the graft flow at the end of the operation was significantly associated with the mean flow with the cross-clamp on (P < .001), sex (P = .003), and PI at the end of the operation (P = .003). Concomitant valve surgery did not influence flows. Male patients had 18 mL/min higher flow. CONCLUSIONS: The graft flow at the end of the operation can be determined by the flow with the cross-clamp on, the PI with the cross-clamp off and coronary artery. We reported differences in the graft flows between sexes, and for first the time, we introduced the concepts of "adequate flow" and "resistance-to-forward-flow" for patent coronary grafts.

Original publication




Journal article


J card surg

Publication Date





304 - 312


CABG, LIMA, TTFM, adequacy, bypass, coronary, effectiveness, flow, graft, resistance, surgery