Synthesis and biological evaluation of alpha-halogenated bisphosphonate and phosphonocarboxylate analogues of risedronate.
Marma MS., Xia Z., Stewart C., Coxon F., Dunford JE., Baron R., Kashemirov BA., Ebetino FH., Triffitt JT., Russell RG., McKenna CE.
Alpha-halogenated analogues of the anti-resorptive bisphosphonate risedronate (5, Ris) and its phosphonocarboxylate cognate (7, 3-PEHPC) were synthesized and compared with 5, 7, and the corresponding desoxy analogues in bone mineral affinity and mevalonate pathway inhibition assays. The Ris (5e-h) and 3-PEHPC (7e-h) analogues had decreased bone mineral affinity, confirming that the alpha-OH group in 5 and 7 enhances bone affinity. The 5 alpha-halo-analogues potently inhibited farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) with IC50 values from 16 (alpha-F) to 340 (alpha-Br) nM (5, 6 nM). In contrast, 7 alpha-halo-analogues were ineffective versus FPPS (IC50 > 600 microM), but inhibited Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT) (IC50 = 16-35 microM) similarly to 7 itself (IC50 = 24 microM). The alpha-F analogue 7e was 1-2 times as active as 7 in J774 cell viability and Rab11 prenylation inhibition assays.