Deoxyspergualin in relapsing and refractory Wegener's granulomatosis.
Flossmann O., Baslund B., Bruchfeld A., Tervaert JW., Hall C., Heinzel P., Hellmich B., Luqmani RA., Nemoto K., Tesar V., Jayne DR.
Conventional therapy of Wegener's granulomatosis with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids is limited by incomplete remissions and a high relapse rate. The efficacy and safety of an alternative immunosuppressive drug, deoxyspergualin, was evaluated in patients with relapsing or refractory disease.A prospective, international, multicentre, single-limb, open-label study. Entry required active Wegener's granulomatosis with a Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) > or =4 and previous therapy with cyclophosphamide or methotrexate. Immunosuppressive drugs were withdrawn at entry and prednisolone doses adjusted according to clinical status. Deoxyspergualin, 0.5 mg/kg per day, was self-administered by subcutaneous injection in six cycles of 21 days with a 7-day washout between cycles. Cycles were stopped early for white blood count less than 4000 cells/mm(3). The primary endpoint was complete remission (BVAS 0 for at least 2 months) or partial remission (BVAS <50% of entry score). After the sixth cycle azathioprine was commenced and follow-up continued for 6 months.42/44 patients (95%) achieved at least partial remission and 20/44 (45%) achieved complete remission. BVAS fell from 12 (4-25), median (range) at baseline to 2 (0-14) at the end of the study (p<0.001). Prednisolone doses were reduced from 20 to 8 mg/day (p<0.001). Relapses occurred in 18 (43%) patients after a median of 170 (44-316) days after achieving remission. Severe or life-threatening (> or = grade 3) treatment-related adverse events occurred in 24 (53%) patients mostly due to leucopaenias.Deoxyspergualin achieved a high rate of disease remission and permitted prednisolone reduction in refractory or relapsing Wegener's granulomatosis. Adverse events were common but rarely led to treatment discontinuation.