In vitro evaluation of the resistance to dislocation of a meniscal-bearing total knee prosthesis between 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion.
Weale AE., Feikes J., Prothero D., O'Connor JJ., Murray D., Goodfellow J.
An increased incidence of dislocation is the most important potential disadvantage introduced by the use of meniscal-bearing prostheses. The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the resistance to dislocation of a meniscal-bearing total knee arthroplasty in various circumstances and to establish which anatomic structures contribute to bearing stability. The prosthesis was implanted into cadaver knee specimens mounted in a 6 df rig. Dislocation was provoked by applying anteriorly or posteriorly directed forces (20-100N) to the tibia in the plane of the tibial plateau. Dislocation was defined as any stable displacement of the bearing (relative to the tibia or the femur) that persisted after release of the load applied to provoke it. The specimens were tested in an arc of knee flexion between 30 degrees and 90 degrees, with and without simulated quadriceps loads, with and without abducting and adducting loads, and before and after division of the posterior cruciate ligament and the lateral retinaculum. In the presence of quadriceps load, dislocation could not be provoked. In the absence of quadriceps load, dislocation was not provoked by posteriorly directed force but sometimes was caused by anteriorly directed force. All but 1 of the dislocations were unicompartmental, the lateral compartment proving much less stable than the medial. The tendency toward dislocation increased from 30 degrees to 60 degrees and from 60 degrees to 90 degrees of knee flexion. Adducting moments applied to the knee caused lift-off of the lateral femoral condyle from the bearing and increased the tendency toward dislocation. Abducting moments had the opposite effect. Division of the posterior cruciate ligament had no significant effect. Division of the lateral retinaculum increased the tendency toward dislocation. A femoral component that can be implanted without lateral release is desirable.