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BACKGROUND: To identify the patient and surgical factors associated with revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction as reported by all national and community ACL registries. METHODS: A systematic review was performed on the MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria included English studies published by national or community ACL registries reporting on primary ACL reconstruction and risk factors associated with revision ACL reconstruction. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies from the Swedish, Norwegian, Danish and Kaiser Permanente registries were included for review. Fourteen studies from all four registries reported younger age as a risk factor for revision ACL reconstruction. In addition, the Swedish registry reported concomitant medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury, undergoing earlier surgery, lower Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), smaller graft diameter and an anteromedial portal drilling technique as risk factors for revision. The risk factors reported by the Norwegian registry included lower body mass index (BMI), lower KOOS, hamstring tendon grafts and suspensory fixation. The Danish registry reported hamstring tendon grafts, anteromedial portal drilling and suspensory fixation as risk factors. The Kaiser Permanente registry reported male sex, lower BMI, ethnicity, hamstring tendon grafts, allografts, smaller graft diameter and an anteromedial portal technique as risk factors for revision. CONCLUSION: Multiple patient and surgical factors were associated with increased risk of revision ACL reconstruction in registries. Younger age and the use of hamstring tendon grafts were consistently reported as risk factors for failure.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





287 - 299


ACL reconstruction, Anterior cruciate ligament, Knee surgery, Orthopaedics, Sports medicine, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Female, Hamstring Tendons, Humans, Male, Registries, Reoperation, Risk Factors