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We describe variation across geographical regions of England in operations undertaken following presentation of hip fracture and in 30-day mortality. Some significant geographic variation in 30-day mortality was observed particularly for patients with trochanteric hip fractures and warrants further investigation of other aspects of post-hip fracture care INTRODUCTION: Mortality after hip fracture has improved considerably in the UK over recent decades. Our aim here was to describe geographical variation in type of operation performed and 30-day mortality amongst patients in England with hip fracture. METHODS: The National Hip Fracture Database was used to carry out a prospective cohort study of nearly all over-60 year olds with hip fracture in England. These data were linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), allowing us to explore regional variation in the operations performed for three fracture types (intracapsular, trochanteric and subtrochanteric), and use logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical factors to describe associated 30-day mortality. RESULTS: NHFD recorded data for 64,211 patients who underwent surgery in England during 2017. Most had an intracapsular (59%) or trochanteric fracture (35%), and we found significant geographical variation across regions of England in use of total hip replacement (THR) (ranging from 10.1 to 17.4%) for intracapsular fracture and in intermedullary nailing (ranging from 14.9 to 27.0%) of trochanteric fracture. Some geographical variation in mortality amongst intracapsular fracture patients was found, with slightly higher mortality in the East of England (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.46). Trochanteric fractures showed slightly more variation, with higher 30-day mortality (aOR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.05-1.88) in the East of England and significantly lower mortality in the North East (aOR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified regional differences in operation type and 30-day mortality amongst hip fracture patients in England. The relationship between surgical approach and mortality has been explored, but the extent to which differential mortality reflects variation in approach to medical assessment, anaesthesia and other aspects of care warrants further investigation.

Original publication




Journal article


Osteoporos int

Publication Date



Epidemiology, Geographical variation, Hip fracture, Mortality, Surgery