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ABSTRACTObjectiveWhile many studies have consistently found incomplete reporting of regression-based prediction model studies, evidence is lacking for machine learning-based prediction model studies. We aim to systematically review the adherence of Machine Learning (ML)-based prediction model studies to the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) Statement.Study design and settingWe included articles reporting on development or external validation of a multivariable prediction model (either diagnostic or prognostic) developed using supervised ML for individualized predictions across all medical fields (PROSPERO, CRD42019161764). We searched PubMed from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019. Data extraction was performed using the 22-item checklist for reporting of prediction model studies ( We measured the overall adherence per article and per TRIPOD item.ResultsOur search identified 24 814 articles, of which 152 articles were included: 94 (61.8%) prognostic and 58 (38.2%) diagnostic prediction model studies. Overall, articles adhered to a median of 38.7% (IQR 31.0-46.4) of TRIPOD items. No articles fully adhered to complete reporting of the abstract and very few reported the flow of participants (3.9%, 95% CI 1.8 to 8.3), appropriate title (4.6%, 95% CI 2.2 to 9.2), blinding of predictors (4.6%, 95% CI 2.2 to 9.2), model specification (5.2%, 95% CI 2.4 to 10.8), and model’s predictive performance (5.9%, 95% CI 3.1 to 10.9). There was often complete reporting of source of data (98.0%, 95% CI 94.4 to 99.3) and interpretation of the results (94.7%, 95% CI 90.0 to 97.3).ConclusionSimilar to prediction model studies developed using conventional regression-based techniques, the completeness of reporting is poor. Essential information to decide to use the model (i.e. model specification and its performance) is rarely reported. However, some items and sub-items of TRIPOD might be less suitable for ML-based prediction model studies and thus, TRIPOD requires extensions. Overall, there is an urgent need to improve the reporting quality and usability of research to avoid research waste.What is new?Key findings: Similar to prediction model studies developed using regression techniques, machine learning (ML)-based prediction model studies adhered poorly to the TRIPOD statement, the current standard reporting guideline.What this adds to what is known? In addition to efforts to improve the completeness of reporting in ML-based prediction model studies, an extension of TRIPOD for these type of studies is needed.What is the implication, what should change now? While TRIPOD-AI is under development, we urge authors to follow the recommendations of the TRIPOD statement to improve the completeness of reporting and reduce potential research waste of ML-based prediction model studies.

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Journal article


Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

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