A pas de deux of osteoporosis and sarcopenia: osteosarcopenia.
Laskou F., Patel HP., Cooper C., Dennison E.
The musculoskeletal conditions osteoporosis and sarcopenia are highly prevalent in older adults. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone, whereas sarcopenia is identified by the loss of muscle strength, function and mass. Osteoporosis represents a major health problem contributing to millions of fractures worldwide on an annual basis, whereas sarcopenia is associated with a range of adverse physical and metabolic outcomes. They both affect physical and social function, confidence and quality of life as well as contributing to high health-care costs worldwide. Osteosarcopenia is the term given when both conditions occur concomitantly and it has been suggested that interactions between these two conditions may accelerate individual disease progression as co-existence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia is associated with higher morbidity from falls, fracture, disability as well as mortality. In this review, we will outline the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical consequences of osteosarcopenia and discuss available management strategies.