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INTRODUCTION: Recurrent bleeds into joints causes arthropathy leading to pain and reduced joint movement. This may cause a reduction in postural balance and increase the falls risk in patients with haemophilia (PWH). With an ageing PWH population the need to assess functional balance in clinic will be essential to monitor function and implement interventions to help maintain balance and prevent falls. AIM: To assess the utility of the Four-Square Step Test (FSST) in PWH. METHODS: 80 PWH of all severity types were recruited and underwent a battery of outcome measures: FSST, Timed up & go (TUG), Short performance physical battery (SPPB), Haemophilia Activity List (HAL), ABC confidence questionnaire, and Haemophilia Joint Health score (HJHS). Demographics were collected, together with self-reported falls/trips history. RESULTS: All 80 participants were able to complete all test measures. Median age 44.5 years. Number of participants reporting falls ranged from 23% in severe to 3% in mild. Recent trips 53% severe to 17% mild. Excellent Inter and intra-reliability, ICC of .981 (CI .953-.992), P 

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





334 - 342


falls, four-square step test, haemophilia, outcome measures, validity, Accidental Falls, Adult, Exercise Test, Hemophilia A, Humans, Postural Balance, Reproducibility of Results