Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Undernutrition and other adverse influences arising in fetal life or immediately after birth have a permanent effect on body structure, physiology and metabolism. Evidence is now accumulating from human studies that programming of bone growth might be an important contributor to the later risk of osteoporotic fracture. Body weight in infancy is a determinant of adult bone mineral content, as well as of the basal levels of activity of the GH/IGF-1 and HPA axes, and recent work has suggested a central role for vitamin D. Epidemiological studies have suggested that maternal smoking and nutrition during pregnancy influence intrauterine skeletal mineralization. Finally, childhood growth rates have been directly linked to the risk of hip fracture many decades later. Further work is needed to use this approach to develop novel therapeutic and preventative strategies to reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in the population.


Journal article


J br menopause soc

Publication Date





14 - 29


Female, Hip Fractures, Humans, Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal, Pregnancy, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Smoking