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The objective of this work was to estimate the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or CVD death) at 1 year among three cohorts of patients at high risk of fracture (osteoporosis, previous fracture, and anti-osteoporosis medication) and to identify the key risk factors of CVD events in these three cohorts. To do so, this prospective cohort study used data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care database from United Kingdom. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite outcome for the occurrence of either myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, or CVD death) were identified in patients aged 50 years or older at high or imminent fracture risk identified in three different cohorts (not mutually exclusive): recently diagnosed with osteoporosis (OST, n = 65,295), incident fragility fracture (IFX, n = 67,065), and starting oral bisphosphonates (OBP, n = 145,959). About 1.90%, 4.39%, and 2.38% of the participants in OST, IFX, and OBP cohorts, respectively, experienced MACE events. IFX was the cohort with the higher risk: MACE incidence rates (cases/1000 person-years) were 19.63 (18.54-20.73) in OST, 52.64 (50.7-54.5) in IFX, and 26.26 (25.41-27.12) in OBP cohorts. Risk of MACE events at 1 year was predicted in the three cohorts. Models using a set of general, CVD, and fracture candidates selected by lasso regression had a good discrimination (≥70%) and internal validity and generally outperformed the models using only the CVD risk factors of general population listed in QRISK tool. Main risk factors common in all MACE models were sex, age, smoking, alcohol, atrial fibrillation, antihypertensive medication, prior MI/stroke, established CVD, glomerular filtration rate, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and number of concomitant medicines. Identified key risk factors highlight the differences of patients at high risk of fracture versus general population. Proposed models could improve prediction of CVD events in patients with osteoporosis in primary care settings. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

Original publication




Journal article


J bone miner res

Publication Date





1986 - 1996


CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSESSMENT, INCIDENCE RATES, ORAL BISPHONATES, OSTEOPOROSIS, PROGNOSTIC MODEL, Humans, Cardiovascular Diseases, Incidence, Antihypertensive Agents, Prospective Studies, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, United Kingdom, Fractures, Bone, Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Cholesterol, Diphosphonates