Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of community-based rehabilitation interventions which incorporate outdoor mobility on physical activity, endurance, outdoor mobility and falls-related self-efficacy in older adults. DESIGN: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro and OpenGrey were searched systematically from inception to June 2021 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of community-based rehabilitation incorporating outdoor mobility on physical activity, endurance, outdoor mobility and/or falls-related self-efficacy in older adults. Duplicate screening, selection, extraction and appraisal were completed. Results were reported descriptively and with random-effects meta-analyses stratified by population (proactive [community-dwelling], reactive [illness/injury]). RESULTS: A total of 29 RCTs with 7,076 participants were identified (66% high bias for at least one domain). The outdoor mobility component was predominantly a walking programme with behaviour change. Rehabilitation for reactive populations increased physical activity (seven RCTs, 587 participants. Hedge's g 1.32, 95% CI: 0.31, 2.32), endurance (four RCTs, 392 participants. Hedges g 0.24; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.44) and outdoor mobility (two RCTs with 663 participants. Go out as much as wanted, likelihood of a journey) at intervention end versus usual care. Where reported, effects were preserved at follow-up. One RCT indicated a benefit of rehabilitation for proactive populations on moderate-to-vigorous activity and outdoor mobility. No effect was noted for falls-related self-efficacy, or other outcomes following rehabilitation for proactive populations. CONCLUSION: Reactive rehabilitation for older adults may include walking programmes with behaviour change techniques. Future research should address the potential benefit of a walking programme for proactive populations and address mobility-related anxiety as a barrier to outdoor mobility for both proactive and reactive populations.

Original publication




Journal article


Age ageing

Publication Date





older people, outdoor mobility, physical activity, rehabilitation, social, systematic review, walking, Aged, Anxiety, Exercise, Humans, Independent Living, Nutritional Status, Walking