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AIM: To develop a core set of outcome domains to be measured in clinical studies on lower limb orthopaedic surgery for ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP) that represents the priorities of an international multi-stakeholder group (children, parent/carers, and health professionals). METHOD: Potential outcome domains were identified through literature review and qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. These were scored in an international two-round Delphi survey, using a 9-point Likert scale. A final consensus meeting with key stakeholders agreed on the most important outcome domains and refined the core outcome set (COS). RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-one health professionals and 36 individuals with CP and their parents/carers rated 21 of 41 outcomes as important in the Delphi survey. The final consensus group agreed 19 outcomes within eight domains to be included in the final COS: pain and fatigue, lower limb structure, motor function, mobility (daily life activities), gait-related outcomes, physical activity, independence, and quality of life. INTERPRETATION: A COS for lower limb orthopaedic surgery for children with CP was developed. Incorporating this in the design of future clinical studies will provide a more holistic assessment of the impact of treatment while allowing meaningful comparisons and future synthesis of results from primary studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Dev med child neurol

Publication Date