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Rotator cuff tendon tears are common injuries of the musculoskeletal system that often require surgical repair. However, re-tearing following repair is a significant clinical problem, with a failure rate of up to 40%, notably at the transition from bone to tendon. The development of biphasic materials consisting of soft and hard components, which can mimic this interface, is therefore promising. Here, we propose a simple manufacturing approach that combines electrospun filaments and 3D printing to achieve scaffolds made of a soft polydioxanone cuff embedded in a porous polycaprolactone block. The insertion area of the cuff was based on the supraspinatus tendon footprint and the size of the cuff was scaled up from 9 to 270 electrospun filaments to reach a clinically relevant strength of 227N on average. Our biological evaluation showed that the biphasic scaffold components were non-cytotoxic, and that tendon and bone cells could be grown on the cuff and block, respectively. Overall, these results indicate that combining electrospinning and 3D printing is a feasible and promising approach to create soft-to-hard biphasic scaffolds that could improve the outcomes of rotator cuff repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original publication




Journal article


Macromol biosci

Publication Date



3D printing, Electrospinning, Polycaprolactone, Polydioxanone, Soft-hard biphasic implant, Tendon repair