Role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of musculoskeletal diseases: update from an European Society of Clinical and Economical Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) working group.
Chevalley T., Brandi ML., Cashman KD., Cavalier E., Harvey NC., Maggi S., Cooper C., Al-Daghri N., Bock O., Bruyère O., Rosa MM., Cortet B., Cruz-Jentoft AJ., Cherubini A., Dawson-Hughes B., Fielding R., Fuggle N., Halbout P., Kanis JA., Kaufman J-M., Lamy O., Laslop A., Yerro MCP., Radermecker R., Thiyagarajan JA., Thomas T., Veronese N., de Wit M., Reginster J-Y., Rizzoli R.
Vitamin D is a key component for optimal growth and for calcium-phosphate homeostasis. Skin photosynthesis is the main source of vitamin D. Limited sun exposure and insufficient dietary vitamin D supply justify vitamin D supplementation in certain age groups. In older adults, recommended doses for vitamin D supplementation vary between 200 and 2000 IU/day, to achieve a goal of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcifediol) of at least 50 nmol/L. The target level depends on the population being supplemented, the assessed system, and the outcome. Several recent large randomized trials with oral vitamin D regimens varying between 2000 and 100,000 IU/month and mostly conducted in vitamin D-replete and healthy individuals have failed to detect any efficacy of these approaches for the prevention of fracture and falls. Considering the well-recognized major musculoskeletal disorders associated with severe vitamin D deficiency and taking into account a possible biphasic effects of vitamin D on fracture and fall risks, an European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) working group convened, carefully reviewed, and analyzed the meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of vitamin D on fracture risk, falls or osteoarthritis, and came to the conclusion that 1000 IU daily should be recommended in patients at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The group also addressed the identification of patients possibly benefitting from a vitamin D loading dose to achieve early 25-hydroxyvitamin D therapeutic level or from calcifediol administration.