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Clinical prediction models must be appropriately validated before they can be used. While validation studies are sometimes carefully designed to match an intended population/setting of the model, it is common for validation studies to take place with arbitrary datasets, chosen for convenience rather than relevance. We call estimating how well a model performs within the intended population/setting "targeted validation". Use of this term sharpens the focus on the intended use of a model, which may increase the applicability of developed models, avoid misleading conclusions, and reduce research waste. It also exposes that external validation may not be required when the intended population for the model matches the population used to develop the model; here, a robust internal validation may be sufficient, especially if the development dataset was large.

Original publication




Journal article


Diagn progn res

Publication Date





Clinical prediction model, Generalisability, Validation