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Sclerotherapy is currently employed to effectively treat varicose veins. It involves the injection of a sclerosing agent, which causes endothelial wall damage and vessel shrinkage. Pre-clinical in-vitro studies are conducted to characterize the performance of sclerosants; however, they often do not replicate physiologically relevant conditions. In this study, we adopted a bottom-up approach to develop robust models for pre-clinical testing of the mechanical and biological performance of sclerosing agents. Models comprised of (i) 2D in vitro cell monolayers, (ii) 3D vein-on-a-chip (VOC) to more closely replicate the vein architecture, and (iii) ex-vivo models to validate the VOCs (Fig. 1).


Conference paper

Publication Date



1061 - 1063