In vitro and ex vivo evaluation of the biological performance of sclerosing foams
Bottaro E., Paterson JAJ., Quercia L., Zhang X., Hill M., Patel VA., Jones SA., Lewis AL., Millar TM., Carugo D.
AbstractSince the first reports on foam sclerotherapy, multiple studies have been conducted to determine the physical properties and behavior of foams, but relatively little is known about their biological effects on the endothelial cells lining the vessel wall. Moreover, a systematic comparison of the biological performance of foams produced with different methods has not been carried out yet. Herein, a 2D in vitro method was developed to compare efficacy of commercially available polidocanol injectable foam (PEM, Varithena) and physician-compounded foams (PCFs). Endothelial cell attachment upon treatment with foam was quantified as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy, and was correlated with foam physical characteristics and administration conditions. An ex vivo method was also developed to establish the disruption and permeabilisation of the endothelium caused by sclerosing agents. It relied on the quantitation of extravasated bovine serum albumin conjugated to Evans Blue, as an indicator of endothelial permeability. In our series of comparisons, PEM presented a greater overall efficacy compared to PCFs, across the different biological models, which was attributed to its drainage dynamics and gas formulation. This is consistent with earlier studies that indicated superior physical cohesiveness of PEM compared to PCFs.