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OBJECTIVES: We sought to test the hypothesis that cigarette smoking adversely alters protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR-1)-mediated vascular effects in vivo in humans. BACKGROUND: Distinct from its role in the coagulation cascade, thrombin exerts its major cellular and cardiovascular actions via PAR-1. The activation of PAR-1 causes endothelium-dependent arterial vasodilation and the release of endogenous fibrinolytic factors. METHODS: Forearm blood flow was measured with venous occlusion plethysmography in 12 cigarette smokers and 12 age- and gender-matched nonsmokers during intrabrachial infusions of PAR-1-activating-peptide (SFLLRN; 5 to 50 nmol/min), bradykinin (100 to 1,000 pmol/min), and sodium nitroprusside (2 to 8 mug/min). Plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 antigen and activity concentrations were measured throughout the experiment. RESULTS: All agonists caused dose-dependent increases in forearm blood flow (p < 0.0001 for all). Although bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside caused similar vasodilation, SFLLRN-induced vasodilation was attenuated in smokers (p = 0.04). Smokers had modest reductions in bradykinin-induced active t-PA release (reduced by 37%, p = 0.03) and had a marked impairment of SFLLRN-induced t-PA antigen (p = 0.02) and activity (p = 0.006) release, with a 96% reduction in overall net t-PA antigen release. The use of SFLLRN also caused similar (p = NS) increases in inactive plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 in both smokers and nonsmokers (p

Original publication




Journal article


J am coll cardiol

Publication Date





33 - 39


Adult, Biomarkers, Bradykinin, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Endothelium, Vascular, Female, Fibrinolysis, Forearm, Hemodynamics, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Nitroprusside, Peptide Fragments, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1, Plethysmography, Receptor, PAR-1, Receptors, Thrombin, Research Design, Risk Factors, Smoking, Thrombosis, Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Vasodilation, Vasodilator Agents