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Current hormone replacement therapy may not optimize cardiovascular health in women with premature ovarian failure. We compared the effects of physiological and standard sex steroid replacement regimens on cardiovascular health in these women. In an open-label, randomized, controlled crossover trial, 34 women with premature ovarian failure were randomly assigned to 4-week cycles of physiological (transdermal estradiol and vaginal progesterone) and standard (oral ethinylestradiol and norethisterone) therapy for 12 months. Cardiovascular health was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and renal and humoral factors. Eighteen women (19 to 39 years of age) completed the 28-month protocol. Both regimens caused similar suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and provided symptom relief. In comparison with the standard regimen, physiological sex steroid replacement caused lower mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressures throughout the 12-month treatment period (ANOVA; P

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





805 - 811


Adult, Arteries, Blood Pressure, Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory, Cross-Over Studies, Estrogen Replacement Therapy, Female, Humans, Primary Ovarian Insufficiency