Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVE: Using a clinical model of deep arterial injury, we assessed the ability of exogenous and endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) to limit acute in situ thrombus formation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Ex vivo thrombus formation was assessed in the Badimon chamber at low and high shear rates in 2 double-blind randomized cross-over studies of 20 healthy volunteers during extracorporeal administration of recombinant t-PA (0, 40, 200, and 1000 ng/mL) or during endogenous t-PA release stimulated by intra-arterial bradykinin infusion in the presence or absence of oral enalapril. Recombinant t-PA caused a dose-dependent reduction in thrombus area under low and high shear conditions (P<0.001 for all). Intra-arterial bradykinin increased plasma t-PA concentrations in the chamber effluent (P<0.01 for all versus saline) that was quadrupled in the presence of enalapril (P<0.0001 versus placebo). These increases were accompanied by an increase in plasma D-dimer concentration (P<0.005 for all versus saline) and, in the presence of enalapril, a reduction in thrombus area in the low shear (16±5; P=0.03) and a trend toward a reduction in the high shear chamber (13±7%; P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Using a well-characterized clinical model of coronary arterial injury, we demonstrate that endogenous t-PA released from the vascular endothelium enhances fibrinolysis and limits in situ thrombus propagation. These data support a crucial role for the endogenous fibrinolytic system in vivo and suggest that continued exploration and manipulation of its therapeutic potential are warranted.

Original publication




Journal article


Arterioscler thromb vasc biol

Publication Date





1105 - 1111


Adolescent, Adult, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Bradykinin, Cross-Over Studies, Double-Blind Method, Endothelium, Vascular, Fibrinolysis, Humans, Thrombosis, Tissue Plasminogen Activator