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PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma (MM) is accompanied by heterogeneous somatic alterations. The overall goal of this study was to describe the genomic landscape of myeloma using deep whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and develop a model that identifies patients with long survival. METHODS: We analyzed deep WGS data from 183 newly diagnosed patients with MM treated with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD) alone or RVD + autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in the IFM/DFCI 2009 study ( identifier: NCT01191060). We integrated genomic markers with clinical data. RESULTS: We report significant variability in mutational load and processes within MM subgroups. The timeline of observed activation of mutational processes provides the basis for 2 distinct models of acquisition of mutational changes detected at the time of diagnosis of myeloma. Virtually all MM subgroups have activated DNA repair-associated signature as a prominent late mutational process, whereas APOBEC signature targeting C>G is activated in the intermediate phase of disease progression in high-risk MM. Importantly, we identify a genomically defined MM subgroup (17% of newly diagnosed patients) with low DNA damage (low genomic scar score with chromosome 9 gain) and a superior outcome (100% overall survival at 69 months), which was validated in a large independent cohort. This subgroup allowed us to distinguish patients with low- and high-risk hyperdiploid MM and identify patients with prolongation of progression-free survival. Genomic characteristics of this subgroup included lower mutational load with significant contribution from age-related mutations as well as frequent NRAS mutation. Surprisingly, their overall survival was independent of International Staging System and minimal residual disease status. CONCLUSION: This is a comprehensive study identifying genomic markers of a good-risk group with prolonged survival. Identification of this patient subgroup will affect future therapeutic algorithms and research planning.

Original publication




Journal article


J clin oncol

Publication Date





3107 - 3118


Adult, Aged, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Biomarkers, Tumor, Bortezomib, Combined Modality Therapy, DNA Mutational Analysis, DNA, Neoplasm, Dexamethasone, Female, GTP Phosphohydrolases, Humans, INDEL Mutation, Lenalidomide, Male, Membrane Proteins, Middle Aged, Multiple Myeloma, Progression-Free Survival, Stem Cell Transplantation, Survival Rate, Treatment Outcome, Whole Genome Sequencing