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AIMS: The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOxFQ) is an anatomically specific patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) currently used to assess a wide variety of foot and ankle pathology. It consists of 16 items across three subscales measuring distinct but related traits: walking/standing ability, pain, and social interaction. It is the most used foot and ankle PROM in the UK. Initial MOxFQ validation involved analysis of 100 individuals undergoing hallux valgus surgery. This project aimed to establish whether an individual's response to the MOxFQ varies with anatomical region of disease (measurement invariance), and to explore structural validity of the factor structure (subscale items) of the MOxFQ. METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective cohort study involving 6,637 patients (mean age 52 years (SD 17.79)) presenting with a wide range of foot and ankle pathologies between January 2013 and December 2021. To assess whether the MOxFQ responses vary by anatomical region of foot and ankle disease, we performed multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. To assess the structural validity of the subscale items, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. RESULTS: Measurement invariance by pathology was confirmed, suggesting the same model can be used across all foot and ankle anatomical regions. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a two- to three-factor model, and suggested that item 13 (inability to carry out work/everyday activities) and item 14 (inability to undertake social/recreational activities) loaded more positively onto the "walking/standing" subscale than their original "social interaction" subscale. CONCLUSION: This large cohort study supports the current widespread use of the MOxFQ across a broad range of foot and ankle pathologies. Our analyses found indications that could support alterations to the original factor structure (items 13 and 14 might be moved from the "social interaction" to the "walking/standing" subscale). However, this requires further work to confirm.

Original publication




Journal article


Bone joint j

Publication Date





256 - 261